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Outline: Liberal Dreams of Progress

-Caudillos as an enduring political image/phenomenom. 

Liberals Make a Comeback:
1)Caudillos did not build national infrastructure. Left a vacuum.
2)Everyone wants progress…but how do you define it?
3)Women, Afro-Latinos, Indigenous, Mixed Race?
4)Upper-class liberals?
5)Is there a conflict between the two definitions of progress?

Liberal Concepts of Progress:
1)Economic, Political, Social, and Cultural.

Why did the Conservatives fall out of power?

Prophets of Progress:
Argentine Generation of 1835
-Juan Bautista Alberdi- 1837, Fragmentos, viewed caudillos as organic expressions of democracy. 
-Diego Faustino Sarmiento- 1845, The Life of Facundo, or Civilization and Barbarism.
-Cities- modern, civilized, educated, and European oriented.
-Countryside- backward, barbaric, ignorant, superstitious and tied to folk traditions.

Postivism: 1860-1910
Auguste de Comte.  Order and Progress! Mankind must leave the irrational phase and enter the scientific stage in order to progress.
1)Study society scientifically and discover its rules.
2)Small educated technocratic elites should run countries until the ignorant masses improve their educational level.

Question: Democracy and freedom or economic progress first?  Economic or political liberalism.

Scientific Racism:
1)Attempt to apply Darwin's theories to countries and race. 
2)Survival of fittest. But who is fittest?
3)Modern rejuvenation of caste pyramid